Title: Influence of the Binder on Compaction, Shear and Friction for Carbon Fiber Preforms in the RTM-Process
Authors: Carina Schauer, Brian Ongaki, Dennis Bublitz, Klaus Drechsler
Abstract: Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) technology has been adapted to various applications to produce high-performance and lightweight carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) on an industrial scale. Nevertheless, defects due to compaction, such as wrinkles, resin-rich edges, and dry spots, can occur when the mold is closed. This study aims to investigate the binders' influence on friction coefficients, out-of-plane shear stiffness and compressibility to avoid friction-induced compaction defects for carbon fiber preforms using corresponding test rigs in universal testing machines. The results indicate significant differences in compaction and shear behavior for the two different epoxy binders, Epikote and CeTePox, at different levels from 5 % to 8 %. Based on the compaction tests, a dependence of the scatter on the binder content became visible. Interestingly, the binders do not differ much on the bindered 0° layer, but on the unbindered 90° layer. This allows conclusions to be drawn about the degree of binder diffusion through the laminate layers during temperature activation in the preforming process. Based on the compaction tests, a correlation of the scattering with the binder content became visible, which is relevant for ensuring stable performance of the process. The findings from the tests will be further implemented in a compaction simulation for dimensioning the preform and thus the RTM mold.
References:  Balasubramanian, K., Sultan, M.T., and Rajeswari, N., Manufacturing techniques of composites for aerospace applications, in: Sustainable Composites for Aerospace Applications, Elsevier, pp. 55–67, 2018. 10.1016/B978-0-08-102131-6.00004-9.  Chensong Dong, Model development for the formation of resin-rich zones in composites processing, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 424, 419–424, 2011. 10.1016/J.COMPOSITESA.2010.12.017.  Bublitz, D., Colin, D., and Drechsler, K., Implementation of a viscoelastic material model to predict the compaction response of dry carbon fiber preforms, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 153, 106718, 2022. 10.1016/j.compositesa.2021.106718.  Spiridon Koutsonas, Modelling race-tracking variability of resin rich zones on 90° composite 2.2 twill fibre curved plate, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 168, 448–459, 2018. 10.1016/J.COMPSCITECH.2018.08.001.  James Wang, T., Wu, C.H., and James Lee, L., In-plane permeability measurement and analysis in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos., Vol. 154, 278–288, 1994. 10.1002/pc.750150406.  Rohatgi, V., Lee, L.J., and Melton, A., Overview of fibre preforming, in: Kruckenberg, T.M., and Paton, R., eds., Resin Transfer Moulding for Aerospace Structures, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 148–176, 1998. 10.1007/978-94-011-4437-7_6.  White, W. D., Cook, P. H., Wai M. and Davis, W., Process for resin transfer molding and preform used in the process. US Patent: 5,427,725. 1995.  Bublitz, D., Schletterer, M., Matschinski, A., Colin, D., and Drechsler, K., A NOVEL METHOD FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF OUTOUT-OF -PLANE SHEAR STIFFNESS FOR DRY CARBON FIBER PREFORMS: SAMPE Europe Conference 2021 Baden/Zürich, Swizerland, ed., 2021.  Grieser, T., and Mitschang, P., Investigation of the compaction behavior of carbon fiber NCF for continuous preforming processes, Polymer Composites, Vol. 3811, 2609–2625, 2017. 10.1002/pc.23854.  B. Chen, A. H.D. Cheng, and T. W. Chou, A nonlinear compaction model for fibrous preforms, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 325, 701–707, 2001. 10.1016/S1359-835X(00)00148-2.  Wang, D., Mesoscopic modeling and simulation on the forming process of textile composites, France: Dissertation, 2019.  Robitaille, F., and Gauvin, R., Compaction of textile reinforcements for composites manufacturing. III: Reorganization of the fiber network, Polymer Composites, Vol. 201, 48–61, 1999. 10.1002/pc.10334.  DIN EN14882, Rubber or plastic coated fabrics - Determination of the static and dynamic coefficient of friction; German version EN 14882:2005, Berlin: Beuth Verlag GmbH, 2005-11. 10.31030/9626405.  ASTMG115-98, Guide for Measuring and Reporting Friction Coefficients, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM InternationalG02 Committee, 1998. 10.1520/G0115-98.  ISO1922:2018, ISO 1922:2018 Rigid cellular plastics -Determination of shear properties. 5.ISO/TC 61/SC 10 Cellular plastics, 2018.  ISO20505, Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics) - Determination of the interlaminar shear strength of continuous-fibre-reinforced composites at ambient temperature by the compression of double-notched test pieces and by the Iosipescu test. 1.ISO/TC 206 Fine ceramics, 2005.  DIN EN ISO14125, Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of flexural properties (ISO 14125:1998 + Cor.1:2001 + Amd.1:2011); German version EN ISO 14125:1998 + AC:2002 + A1:2011, Berlin: Beuth Verlag GmbH, 2011-05. 10.31030/1753441.  ASTMD2344/D2344M-16, Standard Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates, West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM InternationalD30 Committee. 10.1520/D2344_D2344M-16.  Margossian, A., Forming of tailored thermoplastic composite blanks, München: Dissertation, 05.2017.  Ajayi, J.O., Fabric Smoothness, Friction, and Handle, Textile Research Journal, Vol. 621, 52–59, 1992. 10.1177/004051759206200108
Conference: CAMX 2022
Publication Date: 2022/10/17
Price: $26.00Get This Paper