Get This Paper

Novel Degradable Polymer Composite Materials to Enable Acid Fracturing at High Temperature High Pressure Conditions


Title: Novel Degradable Polymer Composite Materials to Enable Acid Fracturing at High Temperature High Pressure Conditions

Authors: Lei Zhao, Jiaxiang Ren, Peng Cheng, Huailiang Liu

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/c.23.0039

Abstract: Current commercial dissolvable plugs, mainly based on magnesium (Mg) alloys, have been found unsuitable for acid fracturing in oil and gas industry, as those dissolvable Mg alloys react too intensively in acid environment, and nearly all types of commercial protective coatings have been tested ineffective due to inevitable defects/holidays. Thermoplastic Polyglycolic Acid (PGA) may have a significantly low degradation rate in acid, but its temperature rating is too low. To address this issue, we developed a new kind of fiber-enhanced degradable polymer composite material based on thermosets, which offers high strength and temperature rating, as well as low dissolving rate in acid conditions. Degradable thermoset developed in this work offers temperature rating above 150℃, due to its highly cross-linked molecular structure, and exhibits extremely high strength (>120 MPa). Its dissolving rate in acid (15% HCl) is low enough for successful load bearing during 2-6 hrs. of acid hydraulic frac operation and complete dissolve in 2 weeks afterwards in downhole condition. Formulation and molding process have been systematically investigated and optimized to enable large scale manufacturing in high quality at reasonable cost. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of degradable thermoset composite material in downhole plug application. This study could not only benefit oil and gas industry to hydraulic frac High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) reservoir inaccessible before, but also provides a new functional material system that should be potentially used in other industries, such as medical care, marine, environmental protection, etc.

References: 1. Z. Y. Xu, and Z. H. Zhang, The Art of Disintegration–Ten Years in Review of Disintegrable Metals and Downhole Tools. Paper presented in Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, May 2019. [] 2. M. Fripp, and Z. Walton, Degradable Metal for Use in a Fully Dissolvable Frac Plug. Paper presented in Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, May 2016. [] 3. L. Zhao, T. R. Dunne, J. Ren and P. Cheng, Dissolvable Magnesium Alloys in Oil and Gas Industry. London: IntechOpen, 2023 [DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.110618] 4. Y. Wang, C. L. Zhou, H. L. Zhang, T. T. He, X. Y. Tang, H. Peng, H. M. Fang, L. Luo, and S. Gang, Research and Application of Segmented Acid Fracturing Technology in Horizontal Wells of Ultra Deep Carbonate Gas Reservoirs in Southwest China. Paper presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Virtual, March 2021. [] 5. L. Zhao, T. R. Dunne, Route to Optimize Temporary Seal for Downhole Dissolvable Magnesium Plug Application in HT: Failure Analysis and Learnings. Paper presented at AMPP Annual Conference and Expo, Denver, USA, Mar 2023. 6. M. Okura, S. Takahashi, T. Kobayashi, H. Saijo and T. Takahashi, Improvement of Impact Strength of Polyglycolic Acid for Self-Degradable Tools for Low-Temperature Wells. Paper presented at SPE Middle East Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, January 2015. [] 7. S. Takahashi, A. Shitsukawa, and M. Okura, Degradation Study on Materials for Dissolvable Frac Plugs. Paper presented at the SPE/AAPG/SEG Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Houston, US, July 2018 [] 8. S. Khatiwada, P. Duan, R. Garza and A. K. Sadana, Degradable Thermoset Polymer Composite for Intervention-Less Downhole Tools. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, USA, May 2017. [] 9. N. S. Lakshmi and T. L. Cato, Biodegradable polymers as biomaterials. Progress in Polymer Science 32 (2007): 762–798. [] 10. T. Liu, X. L. Guo, W. C. Liu, C. Hao, L. W. Wang, W. C. Hiscox, C. Y. Liu, C. Jin, J. Xin, and J. W. Zhang, Selective Cleavage of Ester Linkages of Anhydride-Cured Epoxy Using a Benign Method and Reuse of the Decomposed Polymer in New Epoxy Preparation. Green Chemistry 19 (18): 4364-4372. []. 11. G. Oliveux, L. O. Dandy, and G. A. Leeke, Current status of recycling of fibre reinforced polymers: Review of technologies, reuse and resulting properties. Progress in Materials Science 72 (2015): 61–99. [] 12. T. C. Wong and L. J. Broutman, Water in Epoxy Resins Part II. Diffusion Mechanism. Polymer Engineering and Science, 25 (9): 529-534. [] 13. A. S. H. Makhlouf and M. Aliofkhazraei, Handbook of Materials Failure Analysis with Case Studies from the Oil and Gas Industry. 1st ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015. 14. M. Fripp and Z. Walton, Wellbore Cool Down Simplifies Using Dissolvable Materials. Paper presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, April 2018. [] 15. R. Rothon, Fillers for Polymer Applications. New York: Springer, 2017 16. R. E. Shalin, Polymer Matrix Composites. New York: Springer, 2017 17. A. Gopferich. Mechanisms of Polymer Degradation and Erosion. Biomaterials 17 (2):103-114. [] 18. B. A. Davis, Compression Molding. Liberty Township: Hanser, 2003 19. S. C. Garcea, Y. Wang and P. J. Withers, X-ray Computed Tomography of Polymer Composites. Composites Science and Technology 156 (2018): 305-319. [] 20. D. S. Brauer, C. Russel, S. Vogt, J. Weisser and M. Schnaberlrauch, Degradable phosphate glass fiber reinforced polymer matrices: mechanical properties and cell response. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine volume 19 (2018): 121–127.

Conference: CAMX 2023

Publication Date: 2023/10/30

SKU: TP23-0000000039

Pages: 12

Price: $24.00

Get This Paper