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DIGITAL LIBRARY: CAMX 2023 | ATLANTA, GA | OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER 2

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Thermoset Composite Forming for Efficient Manufacturing

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Title: Thermoset Composite Forming for Efficient Manufacturing

Authors: Drazen Djokic, Meysam Rahmat, Simon Hind, Alireza Forghani, Paulo Silva, Malcolm Lane, Ali Yousefpour, Anoush Poursartip

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/c.23.0067

Abstract: Forming of thermoset composites is becoming more common in production of aerospace structures, but its wider adoption to more complex geometries continue to encounter processing challenges in terms of defects including: fibre waviness, wrinkling, and buckling. The new proposed forming method and apparatus enables enhanced process control, and relies on material characterization, knowledge of ply movement and techniques to avoid typical defects. High fidelity forming process control is achieved with strategic thermal and stiffness management of a pre-laminated flat panel. During forming, local viscosity and ply movement are manipulated under controlled zonal heating, to address only the part regions undergoing shearing. These regions are also locally stiffened, to induce preferred ply deformations. Regions of the part which do not undergo forming are unheated, causing them to resist the shear force and ensure the forming process progresses as designed. This novel forming technology necessitates the use of simulation for efficient, cost-effective adaptation to new applications. Hence, a complimentary suite of forming simulation tools were developed to predict the different phases of the process, to anticipate ply movements, and any resulting defects for a given set of process conditions. In support of this effort, forming-specific material characterization methods were developed. Sensitivity studies were used to determine the most important forming process parameters and their effects on the final part quality. The simulation approach, in combination with materials characterization and experimental validation, is well aligned with the notion of the advanced, efficient manufacturing digital thread and twin. This paper describes the new thermoset composite forming concept and details experimental trials conducted on a C-channel stiffener geometry with simulation validation. The tapered C-channel parts feature a joggle and multiple ply drops. Multiple types of ply-shearing indicators are embedded in the formed parts to quantitatively validate the forming simulation.

References: 1. Land, P., Crossley, R., Branson, D., Ratchev, S., “Technology Review of Thermal Forming Techniques for use in Composite Component Manufacture.” SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing 9 (1) 2016: 81-89. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2610 2. Duncan, J. L., Panton, S. M., “Chapter 1 Introduction to sheet metal forming.” In Composite Materials Series (11) 1997: 1-25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-0108(97)80003-3 3. Astrom, B. Tomas, “Chapter 2 Thermoplastic Composite Sheet Forming: Materials and Manufacturing Techniques.” In Composite Materials Series (11) 1997: 27-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-0108(97)80004-5 4. Bian, X. X., Gu, Y. Z., Sun, J., Li, M., Liu, W. P., Zhang, Z. G., “Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process.” Applied Composite Materials 20 (5) 2013: 927-945. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10443-012-9310-7 5. Yousefpour, A., Djokic, D., Hind, S., Rahmat, M., Roy, S., Octeau, M.-A., Chen, J., “Articulated Forming Caul for Composite Blank Vacuum Forming.” patent pending, International Application No. PCT/IB2020/050580. US Application No US20220072816. 6. Lane, M., Forghani, A., Andersen, M., Silva, P., Hind, S., Djokic, D., Rahmat, M., Yousefpour, A., Fernlund, G., Poursartip, A., “Characterization Testing of Un-Cured Prepreg Fabrics for Forming Process.” SAMPE Conference Proceedings. Seattle, WA, April 17-20, 2023. The Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. 7. Silva, P., Forghani, A., Lane, M., Hind, S., Djokic, D., Rahmat, M., Yousefpour, A., Fernlund, G., Poursartip, A., “A Physics-Based Approach to Composites Forming Simulation.” SAMPE Conference Proceedings. Seattle, WA, April 17-20, 2023. The Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. 8. Daniel J. Rhoads, Sandi G. Miller, Gary D. Roberts, Richard W. Rauser, Dmitry Golovaty, J. Patrick Wilber, Malena I. Español, “Investigation of Carbon Fiber Architecture in Braided Composites Using X-Ray CT Inspection.” SAMPE Conference Proceedings. Seattle, WA, May 22-26, 2017. The Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. 9. Rahmat M., Djokic, D., Hind, S., Robertson, S., Harrison, M., Yousefpour, A., “Advanced Composite Forming: An Alternative Forming Technology.” CASI AERO21, Virtual event, June 14-18, 2021. 10. Silva, P., Lane, M., Forghani, A., Rahmat, M., Hind, S., Djokic, D., Yousefpour, A., Poursartip, A., “A Comprehensive Framework for Characterization and Simulation of Forming Process.” International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM23), Belfast, 30 July-4 August 2023.

Conference: CAMX 2023

Publication Date: 2023/10/30

SKU: TP23-0000000067

Pages: 14

Price: $28.00

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