Get This Paper

Multi-Axis Pellet-Based Extrusion for Large Format Additive Manufacturing


Title: Multi-Axis Pellet-Based Extrusion for Large Format Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Aywan Das, Wout De Backer

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/c.23.0090

Abstract: Large Format Additive Manufacturing (LFAM), or Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), was introduced to resolve the limitations of the low deposition rate, low scalability, and therefore long print times, of traditional 3D printing methods when applied to the manufacturing of large structures and tooling. LFAM can be used to overcome the high conventional tooling costs of large structures. An overview of LFAM technology is provided in this paper, and shortcomings of current technology are identified, i.e., that large format prints are not making use of multi-axis printing benefits, such as improved layer adhesion and reduced needs of support material. A prototype of a pellet-fed multi-axis large-format material extrusion 3D printer was designed and built. To evaluate the comprehensiveness of the LFAM system utilized in this study, experiments were carried out to find out the best results. Later, the LFAM technology developed in this research was experimentally verified to obtain process parameters for both the consumer and engineering thermoplastic polymers, such as PLA as a printing material. To demonstrate the LFAM's advancements, a 2x2 ft part was printed at a faster rate than conventional printers, with the long-term goal of printing a 10 ft part by the end of the year. The lessons learned from printing large scale multi-axis parts with these two different materials are reviewed and summarized, and recommendations for the use of multi-axis LFAM are made.

References: [1] C. Ajinjeru et al., “Determination of melt processing conditions for high performance amorphous thermoplastics for large format additive manufacturing,” Addit Manuf, vol. 21, pp. 125–132, May 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.03.004. [2] J. Shah, B. Snider, T. Clarke, S. Kozutsky, M. Lacki, and A. Hosseini, “Large-scale 3D printers for additive manufacturing: design considerations and challenges,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol. 104, no. 9–12, pp. 3679–3693, Oct. 2019, doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-04074-6. [3] F. Pignatelli and G. Percoco, “An application- and market-oriented review on large format additive manufacturing, focusing on polymer pellet-based 3D printing,” Progress in Additive Manufacturing. Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022. doi: 10.1007/s40964-022-00309-3. [4] L. Love, C. Duty, B. Post, R. Lind, P. Lloyd, and V. Kunc, “Breaking barriers in polymer additive manufacturing,” 2015, [Online]. Available: [5] M. Wang, H. Zhang, Q. Hu, D. Liu, and H. Lammer, “Research and implementation of a non-supporting 3D printing method based on 5-axis dynamic slice algorithm,” Robot Comput Integr Manuf, vol. 57, pp. 496–505, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1016/J.RCIM.2019.01.007. [6] D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri, H. Li, N. Larkin, and S. Van Duin, “Automatic multi-direction slicing algorithms for wire based additive manufacturing,” Robot Comput Integr Manuf, vol. 37, pp. 139–150, Feb. 2016, doi: 10.1016/J.RCIM.2015.09.002. [7] W. de Backer, M. J. L. van Tooren, and A. P. Bergs, “Multi-axis multi-material fused filament fabrication with continuous fiber reinforcement,” in AIAA/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference, 2018, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, 2018. doi: 10.2514/6.2018-0091. [8] W. De Backer, P. Sinkez, P. G. Sinkez, R. D’cunha, and M. J. L. Van Tooren, “Design for Multi-Axis Fused Filament Fabrication with Continuous Fiber Reinforcement: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications Fiber steering optimization View project Electromagnetic modeling for thermoplastic induction welding View project Design for Multi-Axis Fused Filament Fabrication with Continuous Fiber Reinforcement: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications,” 2018, doi: 10.2514/6.2019-0156. [9] S. Doherty, W. De Backer, A. P. Bergs, R. Harik, M. Van Tooren, and I. Rekleitis, “Selective Directional Reinforcement Of Structures For Multi-Axis Additive Manufacturing,” CAMX – The Composites and Advanced Materials Expo, 2016. [10] Ashley Eckhoff, “Removing the Boundaries of 3D Printing with Multi-Axis Additive,” SME Article, Jun. 15, 2022. [11] “The History of 3D Printing: From the 80s to Today.” [12] A. Haghighi and L. Li, “Study of the relationship between dimensional performance and manufacturing cost in fused deposition modeling,” Rapid Prototyp J, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 395–408, 2018, doi: 10.1108/RPJ-11-2016-0177. [13] “Advanced Materials for 3D Printing: Technologies and Global Markets,” BCC Publishing, 2016. [14] Frost and Sullivan, “Global Additive Manufacturing Market, Forecast to 2025,” 2016. [15] D. Moreno Nieto and S. I. Molina, “Large format fused deposition additive manufacturing: a review,” Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26, no. 5. Emerald Group Holdings Ltd., pp. 793–799, May 19, 2020. doi: 10.1108/RPJ-05-2018-0126. [16] “How to Choose a Large Format 3D Printer | Formlabs.” [17] T. Gutowski et al., “Note on the Rate and Energy Efficiency Limits for Additive Manufacturing,” J Ind Ecol, vol. 21, pp. S69–S79, Nov. 2017, doi: 10.1111/jiec.12664. [18] “The Best Pellet 3D Printers & Extruders | All3DP Pro.” [19] C. M. S. Vicente, M. Sardinha, L. Reis, A. Ribeiro, and M. Leite, “Large-format additive manufacturing of polymer extrusion-based deposition systems: review and applications,” Progress in Additive Manufacturing. Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2023. doi: 10.1007/s40964-023-00397-9. [20] C. E. Duty et al., “Structure and mechanical behavior of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) materials,” Rapid Prototyp J, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 181–189, 2017, doi: 10.1108/RPJ-12-2015-0183. [21] L. J. Love and C. Duty, “Oak Ridge National Laboratory Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM),” 2015. [Online]. Available: [22] Tyler Smith, Vipin Kumar, Vidya Kishore, Katie Copenhaver, John Lindahl, and Vlastimil Kunc, “LARGE SCALE POLYMER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING OF LIGHTWEIGHT FOAM STRUCTURES,” in CAMX – The Composites and Advanced Materials Expo, Anaheim, CA, Oct. 2022. [23] N. Valencia, “World’s First 3D Printed Bridge Opens in Spain,” ArchDaily, Feb. 07, 2017. [24] I. Block, “World’s first 3D-printed concrete bridge opens in the Netherlands,” de zeen, Oct. 17, 2017. [25] “Large-Format Robotic Additive Manufacturing | Design, Research, and Education for Additive Manufacturing Systems (DREAMS) Lab | Virginia Tech,” 2019. [26] B. S. Woods, C. B. Williams, J. L. King, and D. J. Nelson, “Enhancing the Capabilities of Large-Format Additive Manufacturing Through Robotic Deposition and Novel Processes,” 2020. [27] “Large Scale Prototyping,” Additive Engineering Solutions. [28] Yosra K., “Caracol launches Heron AM, its Large-Format Additive Manufacturing,” 3D ADEPT MEDIA, Sep. 12, 2022. [29] G. Nehls, “Caracol AM launches new identity, celebrates composites applications,” CompositesWorld, Sep. 09, 2022. [30] “Large Scale Additive Manufacturing,” Thermwood. [31] “Masterprint® 3X - The Largest Existing Thermoplastic 3D Printer,” Ingersoll Machine Tools, [Online]. [32] “ICON Vulcan Home-Sized 3D Printer,” ICON. [33] “Loci Robotics,” Loci Robotics Inc. [34] “VX4000 - 3D printer for sand molds and cores,” voxeljet. [35] “World’s Largest 3d Metal Printers,” Relativity Space. [36] “Ai Build | Additive Manufacturing Software.” [37] S. Hendrixson, “Large-Format ‘Cold’ 3D Printing with Polypropylene and Polyethylene Manufacturing,” Additive Manufacturing, 2022. [38] “Noztek Xcalibur Hot Melt Desktop Extruder.” [39] “Xcalibur-manual-2022-4”. [40] “3D Printer Nozzle – Brass Vs Stainless Steel Vs Hardened Steel – 3D Printerly.” [41] “MDMCU - Material Conveyance Unit.” [42] “MDMCU-Massive Dimension Material Conveyance Unit User Manual.” [43] V. Carlota, “PLA for 3D Printing: All You Need to Know - 3Dnatives,” 2023.! [44] “KUKA KR10 - 0000210360_EN”, [Online]. Available: [45] “SIMATIC S7-1200 - SIMATIC controller.” [46] “Product Details - S7-1215C DC/DC/DC.” [47] “Product Details - Siemens SM 1231 TC.” [48] “Product Details - Siemens SM 1232 Analog Output.” [49] “EM-241-C DC-Motor Controller”. [50] “Product Details - HMI KTP 700 Basic.” [51] “Totally Integrated Automation Portal - Automation Software - USA.” [52] “PrusaSlicer | Original Prusa 3D printers directly from Josef Prusa.” [53] “Home | Simplify3D Software.” [54] “UltiMaker Cura - UltiMaker.” [55] S. Doherty, W. De Backer, A. P. Bergs, R. Harik, M. Van Tooren, and I. Rekleitis, “Selective Directional Reinforcement Of Structures For Multi-Axis Additive Manufacturing.” [56] “Welcome to” [57] “mayavi · PyPI.” [58] “Simulator for industrial robots and offline programming - RoboDK.” [59] “High-speed 3D printing.” (accessed Jun. 13, 2023). [60] “PLA Pellets – Where to Buy and How They Are Used - 3D Insider.” [61] “Home - 3DXTECH.” (accessed Jun. 13, 2023).

Conference: CAMX 2023

Publication Date: 2023/10/30

SKU: TP23-0000000090

Pages: 18

Price: $36.00

Get This Paper