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DIGITAL LIBRARY: CAMX 2023 | ATLANTA, GA | OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER 2

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Response of GFRP Composites under High Temperature

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Title: Response of GFRP Composites under High Temperature

Authors: Thatcher M. Stevens, Hota V.S. GangaRao, Rakesh K. Gupta

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/c.23.0183

Abstract: The transportation of highly flammable hazardous materials via rail tank cars can pose significant environmental hazards, particularly in the event of derailments where puncture and impact failures often occur. To address this issue, researchers at the West Virginia University Constructed Facilities Center, sponsored by USDOT PHMSA, are developing a fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite jacketing system for tank cars. This system is designed to protect tank cars from puncture and prevent chemical spills in the event of derailment. One example of the urgent need for such a solution occurred on February 3, 2023, when a derailment in East Palestine, OH, resulted in the release of large quantities of hazardous chemicals. The proposed solution is a lightweight, multifunctional FRP jacket that protects tank car contents against puncture and fire. Examined here is the response to high temperatures of a multi-layer, vinyl ester jacket reinforced with glass and Kevlar® fibers. The jacket contains a thermally-insulating Nomex® fabric as well as brominated flame retardants (FRs) and an intumescent coating. The FR acts in the gas phase, inhibiting flame propagation. Simultaneously, the Nomex and intumescent coating help to form char, preventing heat and oxygen from reaching the resin matrix. This should protect the jacket against a pool fire or direct torch impingement. A cone calorimeter (ASTM E-1354) was used to expose 4” by 4” FRP samples made by VARTM to a uniform heat flux of 50 kW/m2, and ignition time, mass loss and heat release rates were measured. While all three mechanisms reduced flammability, the intumescent coating was the most effective.

References: [1] Hu, Yuan, and Xin Wang. Flame Retardant Polymeric Materials: A Handbook. CRC PRESS, 2021. [2] Huggett, C., “Estimation of rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption measurements”, Fire and Materials, vol 4, 61-65 (1980). [3] ASTM E1354-17, 2022 “Standard Heat Method for Heat and Visible Smoke Release Rates for Materials and Products Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter” ASTM International, www.astm.org [4] Duggan, G. J.; Grayson, S. J.; Kumar, “New Fire Classifications and Fire Test Methods for the European Railway Industry” S. Flame Retardants 2004 Proceedings, January 27-28, 2004, London, UK, Interscience Communications [5] “What Is Dupont™ Nomex®® Faqs and Info.” Dupont, https://www.dupont.com/what-is-Nomex®.html. [6] ASTM E648-19ae1, 2020 “Standard Test Method for Critical Radiant Flux of Floor-Covering Systems Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source.” ASTM International, www.astm.org

Conference: CAMX 2023

Publication Date: 2023/10/30

SKU: TP23-0000000183

Pages: 15

Price: $30.00

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