Search

DIGITAL LIBRARY: CAMX 2023 | ATLANTA, GA | OCTOBER 30-NOVEMBER 2

Get This Paper

Crystallinity Variability in Thick Section PET Composites

Description

Title: Crystallinity Variability in Thick Section PET Composites

Authors: Jacob A. Reinholz, Luke R. Gibbon, Eric S. Hall, Robert J. Hart, Chad A. Ulven

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/c.23.0213

Abstract: Thermoplastic polymer crystallinity is partially dependent on processing parameters during the molding process. Crystallinity can be altered by temperature, pressure, and heat transfer rates during the processing of thermoplastic composites. Compression molding is a popular technique for rapid manufacturing of thermoplastic and glass fiber reinforced composites. During the compression molding of the thick sectioned polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites, crystallinity and resulting properties can be altered not only globally but also through thickness. Given the low thermal conductivity of composites utilizing PET and glass fibers, the heat cycle from the surface to the interior of the panel are significantly different thereby directly affecting the mechanical properties of the PET and subsequent composite. This study isolates different processing parameters on thin section panels and expands that understanding to thick section layer wise study of crystallinity. Understanding the variation of mechanical properties through thickness allows for the optimization of properties and more accurate finite element modeling of structures designed with these types of composites in mind. Mechanical characterization included tensile, flexural, interlaminar shear, and compression properties. Crystallinity was characterized utilizing Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and all specimens were post processed with a waterjet eliminating the heat affected zone of traditional specimen preparation techniques.

References: [1] Y. Ma, Y. Yang, T. Sugahara, and H. Hamada, “A study on the failure behavior and mechanical properties of unidirectional fiber reinforced thermosetting and thermoplastic composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 162–172, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.06.005. [2] “$9.3 Billion Automotive Composites (Glass, Carbon, Natural) Market - Global Forecast to 2025,” Business Wire, Jan. 22, 2021. [3] J. Moothoo, M. Bar, and P. Ouagne, “Mechanical properties of compression moulded aggregate-reinforced thermoplastic composite scrap,” Journal of Composites Science, vol. 5, no. 11, Nov. 2021, doi: 10.3390/jcs5110299. [4] I. M. Daniel and O. Ishai, Engineering Mechanics of Composite Materials, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. [5] H. Ning, N. Lu, A. A. Hassen, K. Chawla, M. Selim, and S. Pillay, “A review of Long fibre thermoplastic (LFT) composites,” International Materials Reviews, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 164–188, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1080/09506608.2019.1585004. [6] S. A. Mirdehghan, “Fibrous polymeric composites,” Engineered Polymeric Fibrous Materials, pp. 1–58, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-824381-7.00012-3. [7] M. Etcheverry and S. E. Barbosa, “Glass fiber reinforced polypropylene mechanical properties enhancement by adhesion improvement,” Materials, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1084–1113, 2012, doi: 10.3390/ma5061084. [8] C. H. Zweben, “Composites: Overview,” Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, pp. 192–208, Jan. 2005, doi: 10.1016/B0-12-369401-9/00545-3. [9] R. F. Boyer, “Glassy transitions in semi-crystalline polymers,” Journal Polymer Science, 1975. [10] N. A. Barber, Polyethylene Terephthalate: Uses, Properties, and Degradation. Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2017. [11] B. Demirel, A. Yaraş, and H. ELÇİÇEK, “Crystallization Behavior of PET Materials,” Balıkesir Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitü Dergisi, vol. 13, pp. 26–35, Jan. 2011. [12] P.-Y. B. Jar, R. Mulone, P. Davies, and H.-H. Kausch, “A study of the effect of forming temperature on the mechanical behaviour of carbon-fibre/peek composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 7–19, 1993, doi: 10.1016/0266-3538(93)90076-S. [13] L. Ye, K. Friedrich, J. Kästel, and Y.-W. Mai, “Consolidation of unidirectional CF/PEEK composites from commingled yarn prepreg,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 349–358, 1995, doi: 10.1016/0266-3538(95)00061-5. [14] J. Bernhardsson and R. Shishoo, “Effect of processing parameters on consolidation quality of GF/PP commingled yarn based composites,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 292–313, 2000, doi: 10.1106/X5VY-2TF0-Y3UA-D5DQ. [15] R. H. Elleithy, M. E. Ali Mohsin, I. Ali, and S. M. Al-Zahrani, “Effect of nano - SiO 2 on the crystallinity and crystallization behavior (non-isothermal and isothermal) of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanocomposite,” in Annual Technical Conference - ANTEC, Conference Proceedings, 2012, vol. 3, pp. 2001–2007. [16] M. D. Wakeman, T. A. Cain, C. D. Rudd, R. Brooks, and A. C. Long, “Compression moulding of glass and polypropylene composites for optimised macro- and micro- mechanical properties - 1 commingled glass and polypropylene,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1879–1898, 1998, doi: 10.1016/S0266-3538(98)00011-6. [17] Q. Wang, X. Hu, L. Tan, and J. Gao, Effect of hot press parameters on the consolidation quality of biaxial knitted composites from commingled yarn, vol. 332–334. 2011. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.332-334.2069. [18] K. Fujihara, Z.-M. Huang, S. Ramakrishna, and H. Hamada, “Influence of processing conditions on bending property of continuous carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composites,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 16, pp. 2525–2534, 2004, doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.05.014. [19] D. LeBlanc et al., “Study of processing conditions on the forming of ribbed features using randomly oriented strands thermoplastic composites,” Journal of the American Helicopter Society, vol. 60, no. 1, p. 011005, 2015, doi: 10.4050/JAHS.60.011005. [20] D. Trudel-Boucher, S. Labonté, and C. Cridelich, “Long fiber thermoplastic PET-based composites: Process parameters and mechanical properties,” 2010. [21] J. M. Charrier, Polymeric Materials and Processing, Plastics, Elastomers, and Composites. New York: Hanser Publishers, 1990. [22] “Toray Cetex TC940 Technical Data Sheet,” Toray Advanced Composites, 2022. [23] E.G. Patton, R.J. Hart, & A.Q. Smail, “Manufacturing and Characterization of PET/GF Thermoplastic Composites,” SAMPE neXus 2021, 2021. [24] “ASTM D3039-17 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials.” ASTM Internation, Nov. 2017. [25] “ASTM D695-15 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics.” ASTM International, Sep. 2015. [26] “ASTM D2344-16 Standard Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates.” ASTM International, Jul. 2016. [27] “ASTM E2160-18 Standard Test Method for Heat of Reaction of Thermally Reactive Materials by Differential Scanning Calorimetr.” ASTM International, 2018. [28] TN048, “Polymer Heats of Fusion,” TA Instruments, New Castle, DE.

Conference: CAMX 2023

Publication Date: 2023/10/30

SKU: TP23-0000000213

Pages: 13

Price: $26.00

Get This Paper