Title: Characterizing Thermal Expansion of Large-scale 3D Printed Parts
Authors: Dylan Hoskins, Vlastimil Kunc, Ahmed Hassen, John Lindahl, and Chad Duty
Abstract: Additively manufactured parts have an inherent mesostructure as a result of printing artifacts. The build structure is defined by parameters such as infill pattern, raster spacing, and bead height, and can impart anisotropic thermo-mechanical properties that are different from the bulk properties of the feedstock. The anisotropy is more pronounced when printing with fiber reinforced polymers due to the shear-alignment of fibers during the extrusion process. This study evaluates the combined effects of the printed mesostructure and the fiber-aligned microstructure on the coefficient of thermal expansion of large-scale printed parts. A digital image correlation-based method for recording thermal strain across the surface of a printed part is described. Measured values are compared to predictions based on laminate theory using the anisotropic material properties at the microscale for common raster orientations.
References: 1. Mieloszyk, J., A. Tarnowski, M. Kowalik, R. Perz, and W. Rzadkowski, Preliminary design of 3D printed fittings for UAV. Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEAT-07-2018-0182 2. Kasparova, M., L. Grafova, P. Dvorak, T. Dostalova, A. Prochazka, H. Eliasova, J. Prusa, and S. Kakawand, Possibility of reconstruction of dental plaster cast from 3D digital study models. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 2013. 12(1): p. 49. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-925x-12-49 3. Skowyra, J., K. Pietrzak, and M.A. Alhnan, Fabrication of extended-release patient-tailored prednisolone tablets via fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015. 68: p. 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2014.11.009 4. Hassen, A.A., R. Springfield, J. Lindahl, B. Post, L. Love, C. Duty, U. Vaidya, R.B. Pipes, and V. Kunc. The durability of large-scale additive manufacturing composite molds. in Composites and Advanced Materials Expo (CAMX) Conference. 2016. 5. Hassen, A.A., J. Lindahl, X. Chen, B. Post, L. Love, and V. Kunc. Additive manufacturing of composite tooling using high temperature thermoplastic materials. in SAMPE Conference Proceedings, Long Beach, CA, May. 2016. 6. Kunc, V., J. Lindah, R.B. Dinwiddie, B.K. Post, L.J. Love, C. Duty, M. Matlack, R. Fahey Jr, and A.A. Hassen. Investigation of In-autoclave Additive Manufacturing Composite Tooling. in CAMX Conference, Anaheim, CA. 2016. 7. Sudbury, T.Z., R. Springfield, V. Kunc, and C. Duty, An assessment of additive manufactured molds for hand-laid fiber reinforced composites. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 2017. 90(5): p. 1659-1664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9464-9 8. Masood, S. and W. Song, Development of new metal/polymer materials for rapid tooling using fused deposition modelling. Materials & design, 2004. 25(7): p. 587-594. 9. Twigg, G., A. Poursartip, and G. Fernlund, Tool–part interaction in composites processing. Part I: experimental investigation and analytical model. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2004. 35(1): p. 121-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-835X(03)00131-3 10. Hill, C., K. Rowe, R. Bedsole, J. Earle, and V. Kunc, Materials and Process Development for Direct Digital Manufacturing of Vehicles. 2016. 11. Sung‐Hoon, A., M. Michael, O. Dan, R. Shad, and K.W. Paul, Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 2002. 8(4): p. 248-257. https://doi.org/10.1108/13552540210441166 12. Zaldivar, R.J., D.B. Witkin, T. McLouth, D.N. Patel, K. Schmitt, and J.P. Nokes, Influence of processing and orientation print effects on the mechanical and thermal behavior of 3D-Printed ULTEM® 9085 Material. Additive Manufacturing, 2017. 13: p. 71-80. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2016.11.007 13. Velez-Garcia, G., A. Wright, V. Kunc, and C. Duty, Coefficient of Thermal Expanstion Test Report. ORNL Technical Report, 2014. ORNL/TM-2014/334. 14. Love, L.J., V. Kunc, O. Rios, C.E. Duty, A.M. Elliott, B.K. Post, R.J. Smith, and C.A. Blue, The importance of carbon fiber to polymer additive manufacturing. Journal of Materials Research, 2014. 29(17): p. 1893-1898. https://doi.org/10.1557/jmr.2014.212 15. Duty, C.E., T. Drye, and A. Franc, Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM). 2015, ; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF). p. Medium: ED. 16. Lhotellier, F.C. and H.F. Brinson, Matrix-fiber stress transfer in composite materials: Elasto-plastic model with an interphase layer. Composite Structures, 1988. 10(4): p. 281-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-8223(88)90007-4 17. Advani, S.G. and C.L.T. III, The Use of Tensors to Describe and Predict Fiber Orientation in Short Fiber Composites. Journal of Rheology, 1987. 31(8): p. 751-784. https://doi.org/10.1122/1.549945 18. Affdl, J.C.H. and J.L. Kardos, The Halpin-Tsai equations: A review. Polymer Engineering & Science, 1976. 16(5): p. 344-352. https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.760160512 19. E. Verweyst, B. and C. Tucker, Fiber Suspensions in Complex Geometries: Flow/Orientation Coupling. Vol. 80. 2002. 1093-1106. 20. Tekinalp, H.L., V. Kunc, G.M. Velez-Garcia, C.E. Duty, L.J. Love, A.K. Naskar, C.A. Blue, and S. Ozcan, Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing. Composites Science and Technology, 2014. 105: p. 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.10.009 21. Laboratory, O.R.N., Manufacturing Demonstration Facility Annual Report: Polymer Additive Manufacturing, D.o. Energy, Editor. 2014: Oak Ridge, TN. 22. ASTM E831-14, Standard Test Method for Linear Thermal Expansion of Solid Materials by Thermomechanical Analysis. 2019, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014. 23. Pan, B., K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi, Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: a review. Measurement Science and Technology, 2009. 20(6): p. 062001. https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/20/6/062001 24. Halpin, J.C. and N.J. Pagano, The Laminate Approximation for Randomly Oriented Fibrous Composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 1969. 3(4): p. 720-724. https://doi.org/10.1177/002199836900300416 25. Daniel, I.M. and O. Ishai, Engineering mechanics of composite materials. 2nd ed. 2006, New York: Oxford University Press. xviii, 411 p. 26. Zhang, W., C. Cotton, J. Sun, D. Heider, B. Gu, B. Sun, and T.-W. Chou, Interfacial bonding strength of short carbon fiber/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene composites fabricated by fused deposition modeling. Composites Part B: Engineering, 2018. 137: p. 51-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.11.018
Conference: SAMPE 2019 - Charlotte, NC
Publication Date: 2019/05/20
Price: FREEGet This Paper