Title: Cold Spray Technology for Structural Restoration of Sea-Based Aviation Structural Materials
Authors: Saravanan R. Arunachalam and Sarah E. Galyon Dorman
Abstract: Additive manufacturing and thermal spray technologies are slowly transitioning to the Department of Defense as a method for restoring or manufacturing of obsolete or worn out parts. Specifically, among all thermal spray technologies, cold spray (CS) has proved to be an effective geometric restoration method which has the potential to repair, restore and enhance the airworthiness of aging aircraft. In general, CS involves the introduction of metallic powders (5 - 45 µm) into a gas stream and subsequently accelerated to a velocity range of 450 - 1200 meters/second. The powder particles that exit the nozzle impact the substrate in a solid state creating mechanical or mechanical/metallurgical bond depending on the substrate and the process parameters. Recently the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approved CS for dimensional repair of several non-structural aircraft parts. This research, focuses on a Office of Naval Research funded program to examine the CS technology qualification and approval process for repair and restoration of corrosion damage specifically for aircraft structural components. The paper provides preliminary results on microstructure evaluation, mechanical properties and galvanic corrosion studies on a 7075 Al plate repaired using CS technology.
References: 1. Moridi, A Hassani-Gangaraj, A.M., Guagliano, M and Dao, M., “Cold spray coating: review of material systems and future perspectives,” Surface Engineering 36(6) (2014): 369-395. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743294414Y.0000000270 2. “Efforts to reduce corrosion on the military equipment and infrastructure of the department of defense,” United States office of the Secretory of Defense, USA, Department of Defense, (2007). 3. Karthikeyan J., “Cold Spray Technology: International Status and USA Efforts.” ASB Industries, (2004): 1-14. 4. Decker M. K. and Smith M. F., “Thermal and Cold Spray Analysis of Density, Porosity and Tensile Specimens for Use with LIGA Applications,” SAND2000-0339, Sandia National Laboratories, (2000). DOI: 10.2172/752018 5. Startwell B. D., Kestler R., Legg K. O., Assink W., Nardi A., Sichell J., “Validation of HVOF WC/Co, WC/CoCr and Tribology 800 Thermal Spray Coatings as a Replacement For Hard Chrome Plating On C-2/E-2/P-3 and C-130 Propeller Hub System Components,” NRL-PP-99-22-FR-01, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington: (2003). 6. Sakaki K, “Cold Spray Process Overview and Application Trends,” Mater Science. Forum (2004), 449-452: 1305-8. 7. Karthikeyan J., “Development of Oxidation Resistant Coatings on Grcop-84 Substrates By Cold Spray Process,” NASA-CR 2007-214706 (2007). 8. Pepi M., “Cold Spray Technology for Repair of Magnesium Rotorcraft Components,” NAVAIR Corrosion Resistant Alloy Workshop: (2006). 9. Villafuerte J., “Current and Future Applications of Cold Spray Technology, Recent Trends in Cold Spray Technology: Potential Applications for Repair of Military Hardware,” NATO RT-MP-AVT-163 (2010):1-14. 10. Matthews N., at al “Supersonic Particle Deposition (SPD) Cutting Edge Technology for Corrosion Protection and Damaged Metallic Component Recover in: Proceedings 2010 SDE Symposium Program “Design Engineering in SRP Environment (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.03.013 11. Stoltenhoff T. “Praxair Surface Technologies” 8th Colloquium, HVOF Spraying Cold Spray, Conference, (2009). 12. Dykhuizen, R.C., Smith, M.F., Gilmore, D.L., Neiser, R.A., Jiang, X. and Sampath, S. “Impact of high velocity cold spray particles:, J. Thermal Spray Technol., 8 (1999): 559–564. https://doi.org/10.1361/105996399770350250 13. ASTM Standard B117-18, 2018, “Standard Test Method for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. DOI: 10.1520/B0117-18, www.astm.org. 14. ASTM Standard G34-01, 2018, “Standard Test Method for Exfoliation Corrosion Susceptibility in 2XXX and 7XXX Series Aluminum Alloys (EXCO Test),” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. DOI: 10.1520/G0034-01R18, www.astm.org. 15. ASTM Standard G71-81, 2014, “Standard Test Method for Conducting and Evaluating Galvanic Corrosion Tests in Electrolytes”, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA. DOI: 10.1520/G0071-81R14, www.astm.org. 16. Rokni, M.R., Widener, C.A., Crawford, G.A. West, M.K. “An investigation into microstructure and mechanical properties of cold sprayed 7075 Al deposition”, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. 625 (2015):19-27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2014.11.059 17. Zou, Y., Goldbaum, D.., Szpunar, G.A, Yue, S: “Microstructure and nanohardness of cold-sprayed coatings: Electron backscatter diffraction and nanoindentation studies”, Scr. Mater. 62(6) (2010): 395-398. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scriptamat.2009.11.034 18. Galyon Dorman, S.E, Niebuhr, J.H, Arunachalam, S.R., Buckley, R.T. and Fawaz, S.A. “Predicting and Managing Atmospheric Corrosion in DOD High Strength Aluminum Alloys.” SAFE Inc SAFE-RTP-17-032 (2018).
Conference: SAMPE 2019 - Charlotte, NC
Publication Date: 2019/05/20
Price: FREEGet This Paper