Get This Paper

Feasibility Study of Novel Magnetic Compaction Force Assisted Additive Manufacturing (MCFA-AM) Methodology for Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (C-CFRP) Composites


Title: Feasibility Study of Novel Magnetic Compaction Force Assisted Additive Manufacturing (MCFA-AM) Methodology for Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (C-CFRP) Composites

Authors: Bikash Ranabhat, Sebastian Kirmse, and Kaung-Ting Hsiao

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.19.1535

Abstract: Composite parts manufactured by the current additive manufacturing (AM) methods are inferior in strength and stiffness compared to traditional composite manufacturing. Major issues include voids, physical gaps at layer/layer interface, and the low reinforcing fiber content. This paper experimentally examined the feasibility of a patent-pending novel method, Magnetic Compaction Force Assisted-Additive Manufacturing (MCFA-AM), that utilized a magnetic compaction force to print and support curve-shaped continuous carbon fiber reinforced polymer (C-CFRP) composites in free space without any mold. C-CFRP prepreg tapes were fed through a magnet-assisted roller-like-setting, which was a part of the 3D printing head, and consolidated with a magnetic compaction pressure of 0.21 MPa in this feasibility trial. Short beam shear tests (ASTM D2344) showed that the 0.21 MPa MCFA-AM samples’ interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) was 8 % and 9 % stronger and 7% weaker compared with the C-CFRP samples manufactured by the hand layup, the Tension-Tape-Placement-Without Compaction-AM, and the Out-Of-Autoclave Vacuum-Bag-Only (OOA-VBO) methods, respectively. Microscopic observations showed the size and number of voids were significantly reduced by the magnetic compaction. Finally, it demonstrated that printing stiff, strong, and complex shaped C-CFRP parts with great freedom can be done within a few minutes with this exciting AM-Composites technology advance.

References: 1. ASTM Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies, and ASTM Committee F42 on Additive Manufacturing Technologies. Subcommittee F42. 91 on Terminology. Standard terminology for additive manufacturing technologies. ASTM International, 2012. 2. Parandoush, Pedram, and Dong Lin. "A review on additive manufacturing of polymer-fiber composites." Composite Structures 182 (2017): 36-53. 3. Attaran, Mohsen. "The rise of 3-D printing: The advantages of additive manufacturing over traditional manufacturing." Business Horizons 60.5 (2017): 677-688. 4. Wang, Xin, et al. "3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective." Composites Part B: Engineering 110 (2017): 442-458. 5. Justo, J., et al. "Characterization of 3D printed long fibre reinforced composites." Composite Structures185 (2018): 537-548. 6. Klosterman, Donald, et al. "Interfacial characteristics of composites fabricated by laminated object manufacturing." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 29.9-10 (1998): 1165-1174. 7. Yang, Chuncheng, et al. "3D printing for continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites: mechanism and performance." Rapid Prototyping Journal 23.1 (2017): 209-215. 8. Parandoush, Pedram, et al. "Laser assisted additive manufacturing of continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites." Materials & Design 131 (2017): 186-195. 9. Ning, Fuda, et al. "Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites using fused deposition modeling." Composites Part B: Engineering 80 (2015): 369-378. 10. Kalsoom, Umme, Pavel N. Nesterenko, and Brett Paull. "Recent developments in 3D printable composite materials." RSC Advances 6.65 (2016): 60355-60371. 11. Comer, A. J., et al. "Mechanical characterisation of carbon fibre–PEEK manufactured by laser-assisted automated-tape-placement and autoclave." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 69 (2015): 10-20. 12. Perrin, F., et al. "Mode I interlaminar crack propagation in continuous glass fiber/polypropylene composites: temperature and molding condition dependence." Composites science and technology 63.5 (2003): 597-607. 13. Bureau, M. N., and J. Denault. "Fatigue resistance of continuous glass fiber/polypropylene composites: consolidation dependence." Composites Science and Technology 64.12 (2004): 1785-1794. 14. Blok, L. G., et al. "An investigation into 3D printing of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites." Additive Manufacturing22 (2018): 176-186. 15. Fujihara, K., et al. "Influence of processing conditions on bending property of continuous carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composites." Composites science and technology 64.16 (2004): 2525-2534. 16. Wohlers, Terry. "3D printing and additive manufacturing state of the industry." Annual Worldwide Progress Report. Wohlers Associates(2014). 17. Matsuzaki, Ryosuke, et al. "Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation." Scientific reports 6 (2016): 23058. 18. Zhong, Weihong, et al. "Short fiber reinforced composites for fused deposition modeling." Materials Science and Engineering: A 301.2 (2001): 125-130. 19. Yan, Chunze, et al. "Preparation, characterisation and processing of carbon fibre/polyamide-12 composites for selective laser sintering." Composites Science and Technology 71.16 (2011): 1834-1841. 20. Yuan, Shangqin, et al. "Material evaluation and process optimization of CNT-coated polymer powders for selective laser sintering." Polymers 8.10 (2016): 370. 21. Crump, S. Scott. "Fast, precise, safe prototypes with FDM." ASME annual winter conference, Atlanta. Vol. 50. 1991. 22. Cheah, C. M., et al. "Mechanical characteristics of fiber-filled photo-polymer used in stereolithography." Rapid Prototyping Journal 5.3 (1999): 112-119. 23. Lü, L., J. Y. H. Fuh, and Y. S. Wong. "Improvements of Mechanical Properties by Reinforcements." Laser-Induced Materials and Processes for Rapid Prototyping. Springer, Boston, MA, 2001. 67-88. 24. Zak, G., et al. "Mechanical properties of short-fibre layered composites: prediction and experiment." Rapid Prototyping Journal 6.2 (2000): 107-118. 25. Karalekas, D. E. "Study of the mechanical properties of nonwoven fibre mat reinforced photopolymers used in rapid prototyping." Materials & design 24.8 (2003): 665-670. 26. Handbook, Military. "MIL-HDBK-17-2F: Composite materials handbook." Polym Matrix Compos Mater Usage Des Anal 17 (2002). 27. Love, Lonnie J., et al. "The importance of carbon fiber to polymer additive manufacturing." Journal of Materials Research 29.17 (2014): 1893-1898. 28. Tekinalp, Halil L., et al. "Highly oriented carbon fiber–polymer composites via additive manufacturing." Composites Science and Technology 105 (2014): 144-150. 29. Namiki, Masaki, et al. "3D printing of continuous fiber reinforced plastic." Proceedings of the Society of the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering 45 (2014): 187-196. 30. Wang, Youjiang. "Mechanical properties of stitched multiaxial fabric reinforced composites from mannual layup process." Applied Composite Materials 9.2 (2002): 81-97. 31. Hsiao, K-T., Method and apparatus for 3d printing, patent-pending WO/2018/057784. ( 32. Ranabhat Bikash, and Kuang-Ting Hsiao. "Improve the through-thickness electrical conductivity of CFRP laminate using flow-aligned carbon nanofiber z-threads." International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition. 2018 33. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard test method for short-beam strength of polymer matrix composite materials and their laminates. ASTM International, 2006. 34. Zhu, W., Yan, C., Shi, Y., Wen, S., Liu, J., Wei, Q., & Shi, Y. (2016). A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites. Scientific reports, 6, 33780. 35. Kirmse S., Hsiao K.-T., “Enhancing the interlaminar shear strength of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate using a nanofiber z-threading strategy,” Proc. CAMX 2018, Dallas, TX, October 15-18, 2018 36. Hsiao Kuang-Ting, et al. "Effect of carbon nanofiber z-threads on mode-I delamination toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminates." Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 91 (2016): 324-335. 37. Scruggs, Alexander M., Sebastian Kirmse, and Kuang-Ting Hsiao. "Enhancement of Through-Thickness Thermal Transport in Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Laminates due to the Synergetic Role of Carbon Nanofiber Z-Threads." Journal of Nanomaterials 2019 (2019).

Conference: SAMPE 2019 - Charlotte, NC

Publication Date: 2019/05/20

SKU: TP19--1535

Pages: 15

Price: FREE

Get This Paper