Get This Paper

Optically Enhanced Bonding Workstation for Robust Bonding


Title: Optically Enhanced Bonding Workstation for Robust Bonding

Authors: Eileen O. Kutscha, Kay Y. Blohowiak, Vicki Wu, and Marc J. Piehl

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.19.1398

Abstract: Process control is one of the methods recommended by the FAA to reduce risk in fabrication of structurally bonded composite joints for aircraft structure based on guidance provided in circular AC-107B [ ] for certification of structurally bonded joints. An Optically Enhanced Bonding Workstation is presented here that reduces the risk in bonded joint fabrication. Results will be presented demonstrating the benefits of process monitoring and its ability to reduce risk in performing pre-bond composite surface preparation steps. This supports reduction in the timeline to certification of bonded composite structures through development of a robust bonding process upstream of any part certification steps.

Sanding surface preparation has been identified as a high risk process step that is known to impact bond performance. Control of sanding during surface preparation can be performed using portable surface analysis tools previously identified including included gloss, color, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and optically stimulated electron emissions (OSEE). Threshold limits for the surface analysis tool measurements were determined based on an example objective bonding system utilizing a common EA9394 paste adhesive measured using standard double cantilever beam fracture toughness testing. The patented Optically Enhanced Bonding Workstation (OEBW) [ ], was tailored to monitor and control the epoxy composite surface preparation step. Surface analysis tool threshold limits were incorporated into the OEBW to demonstrate improved composite bond performance through process control. The surface analysis tools investigated here can easily be incorporated into an automated system due to their applicability to rapidly quantify the composite sanded surface treatment and their portability.

References: 1. . “Composite Aircraft Structure.” United Sates. Department of Transportation. Advisory Circular AC 20-107B. Washington, DC: FAA, 2009. 2. . Wu, V., Bossi, R.H., Piehl, M. J., Savol, A.M., Forouhar, F, Manzer, P. “Method and System for Monitoring and Verifying a Manufacturing Process.” United States Patent # 9,591,273, USPTO Madison Building, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, 2017. 3. . Piehl, M.J., Bossi, R.H., Blohowiak, K.Y., Dilligan, Matt A., Grace, William B. “Efficient Certification of Bonded Primary Structures.” SAMPE 2013 Conference and Exhibition: Education and Green Sky - Materials Technology for a Better World: , Long Beach, California, May 6-9, 2013. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. CD-ROM—10 pp. 4. . Department of Defense, Joint Service Specification Guide (JSSG) – Aircraft Structures 2006, October 30, 1998. 5. . Kutscha, E.O., Blohowiak, K.Y., Piehl, M. J., Connell, J.W. “Robust Bonding Through Process Control.” SAMPE Proceedings, Long Beach, CA: May 2018. CD-ROM. 6. . Blohowiak, K., Dilligan, M. A., Grace, W.B., Park, C.Y., Piehl, M.J., Van Voast, P., Kutscha, E.O., and Ashton, H.R. “Qualified Bonded Systems Approach to Certified Bonded Structure.” NATO OTAN STO-MP-AVT-266 KN2 2018. 7. . Kutscha, E., Vahey, P., Belcher, M., VanVoast, P., et al. ‘‘Contamination and Surface Preparation Effects on Composite Bonding.’’ SAMPE Proceedings, Seattle, WA; May 22–25, 2017. CD-ROM. 8. . Department of Defense, “Digital Engineering Strategy.” June 2018 Washington DC: Office of the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Systems Engineering. 9. . Bossi, R. H., Nerenberg, R.L. “Quality assurance for composite bonding.” 45th International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, May 21-25, 2000 Proceedings, v 45, p II/-, 2000. 10. . Ashforth, C., Ilcewicz, L., Jones, R. ""Industry and regulatory interface in developing composite airframe certification guidance."" Proceedings of the American Society for Composites - 29th Technical Conference, 16th ASC 2014; US-Japan Conference on Composite Materials; ASTM-D30 Meeting. 11. . Bossi, R. H., Engelbart, R., Boerio, F.J., Dillingham, G., Crane, R. “Quality Assurance Issues for Bonded Composite Surface Preparation”. SAMPE Conference Proceedings, 2003. 12. . Dillingham, R.G., Conyne-Rapin, S., Boerio, F.J., Bossi, R. H., Crane, R. “Surface Preparation of Composite Materials for Adhesive Bonding.” Adhesion Society 2003. 13. . Boerio, F. J., Roby, B., Dillingham, R. G., Bossi, R. H., Crane, R. L. “Composite Surface Preparation QA for Bonding.” International SAMPE Symposium and Exhibition, Long Beach CA. May 1-5, 2005 Proceedings, v 50, p 2529-2540, 2005. 14. . Boerio, F.J., Roby, B., Dillingham, R. G., Bossi, R. H., Crane, R.L. “Effect of Grit Blasting on the Surface energy and Composition of Graphite/Epoxy Composites.” SAMPE Fall Technical Conference - 37th ISTC: Materials and Processing Technologies for Revolutionary Applications Proceedings, Long Beach, CA. May 1-5, 2005. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. CD-ROM—15 pp. 15. . Oakley, B., Bichon, B., Clarkson, S., Dillingham, G., Hanson, B., McFarland, J.,M., Palmer, M.J., Popelar, C., Weatherston, M. “Determination of Threshold Levels of Archetype Contaminant Compounds on Composite Adherends and Their Quantification via FTIR and Contact Angle Techniques.” Adhesion Society Proceedings, 2016. 16. . Fang, X., Jalowka, J., Riehl, J., Zhao, W., Goberman, D. “Contamination effect on composite-to-metal adhesive bond performance.” SAMPE Conference Proceedings, Seattle, WA, May 22, 2017 - May 25, 2017. CD-ROM. 17. . Fang, X., Sarao, G., Zhao, W., Goberman, D.G., Connell, J.W. “Effectiveness of Surface Treatment Techniques for Composite Bonding with Different Contamination Levels.” SAMPE Conference Proceedings. Long Beach, CA, May 21-24, 2018. CD-ROM. 18. . Ledesma. R., Palmieri, F., Fulton, T., Arthur, A., Eldridge, K., Thibeault, S., Lin, Y., Wohl, C., Connell, J. “Picosecond Pulsed Laser Ablation for the Surface Preparation of Epoxy Composites.” International SAMPE Technical Conference, 2017. 19. . Eastman. “Technical Data Sheet Eastman™ MPK CAS No. 107-87-9.” 2013. 20. . SAE Standard AMS 3819C, 2007, “Cloths, Cleaning For Aircraft Primary and Secondary Structural Surfaces.” SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096, 2007. 21. . Yost, W.T., Welch, C. S., Joe, E. J., Hefner, Jr., B. B. “Quality Monitor and Monitoring Technique Employing Optically Stimulated Electron Emission”. United States Patent #5393980, USPTO Madison Building, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA 22314, 1995. 22. . ASTM. “ASTM D 5528 Standard Test Method for Mode I Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Unidirectional Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites.” 2013. 23. . ASTM. “ASTM D 5573-99 Standard Practice for Classifying Failure Modes in Fiber-Reinforced-Plastic (FRP) Joints.” 1999. 24. . ASTM. “ASTM 5573-ADJ Adjunct to 5573 Standard Practice for Classifying Failure Modes.” 1994.

Conference: SAMPE 2019 - Charlotte, NC

Publication Date: 2019/05/20

SKU: TP19--1398

Pages: 15

Price: FREE

Get This Paper