Get This Paper

The Influence of Processing Parameters on the Transition Zone for Blended Material 3D Printing


Title: The Influence of Processing Parameters on the Transition Zone for Blended Material 3D Printing

Authors: James C. Brackett, Dakota Cauthen, Tyler C. Smith, Vlastimil Kunc and Chad Duty

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.20.0249

Abstract: The use of Multiple Materials (MM) in Additive Manufacturing (AM) is increasingly important for expanding the range of applications in the manufacturing industry, particularly for large-format processes. Typically, polymer-based AM incorporates MM transitions through discrete interfaces between layers. This arrangement significantly increases the occurrence of layer delamination failures due to decreased bonding between dissimilar polymers. Elimination of discrete material interfaces by continuously transitioning from Material A to B provides a possible solution. Such continuous gradients could be used to create functionally graded structures that take full advantage of AM’s capability to deliberately impart site-specific properties. Cincinnati’s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system at Oak Ridge National Lab has been equipped with a dual-hopper system that enables in-situ material switching specifically intended for functionally graded and MM printing. The resulting material transition exhibits varied behavior based on printing conditions, which can have an impact on part design and resulting mechanical properties. In this work, the transition zone is characterized as a function of the printing screw speed (related to volumetric flow) and the screw geometry.

References: [1] M. Vaezi, S. Chianrabutra, B. Mellor, and S. Yang, "Multiple material additive manufacturing – Part 1: a review," Virtual & Physical Prototyping, Article vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19-50, 2013, DOI: 10.1080/17452759.2013.778175. [2] G. H. Loh, E. Pei, D. Harrison, and M. D. Monzón, "An overview of functionally graded additive manufacturing," Additive Manufacturing, vol. 23, pp. 34-44, 2018/10/01/ 2018, DOI: [3] G. Udupa, S. S. Rao, and K. V. Gangadharan, "Functionally graded Composite materials: An overview," in International Conference on Advances in Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, vol. 5, S. Narendranath, M. R. Ramesh, D. Chakradhar, M. Doddamani, and S. Bontha Eds., (Procedia Materials Science. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Bv, 2014, pp. 1291-1299. [4] F. Roger and P. Krawczak, 3D-printing of thermoplastic structures by FDM using heterogeneous infill and multi-materials: An integrated design-advanced manufacturing approach for factories of the future. 2015. [5] H. Kim, E. Park, S. Kim, B. Park, N. Kim, and S. Lee, "Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Single- and Dual-material 3D Printed Products," Procedia Manufacturing, vol. 10, pp. 887-897, 2017/01/01/ 2017, DOI: [6] C. Duty, J. Condon, T. Smith, A. Lambert, S. Kim, and V. Kunc, “Improving the 3D Printed Bond Strength at a Discrete Interface Between Dissimilar Materials,” in Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering 2020, Seattle, WA, May 4-7 2020, 2020. [7] S. Brischetto, C. Ferro, R. Torre, and P. Maggiore, "3D FDM production and mechanical behavior of polymeric sandwich specimens embedding classical and honeycomb cores," Curved and Layered Structures, vol. 5, pp. 80-94, 04/01 2018, DOI: 10.1515/cls-2018-0007. [8] I. Vu, L. Bass, N. Meisel, B. Orler, C. B. Williams, and D. A. Dillard, "Characterization of Mutli-Material Interfaces in PolyJet Additive Manufacturing," Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, Conference Proceeding pp. 959-982, 2015. [9] I. Q. Vu, L. B. Bass, C. B. Williams, and D. A. Dillard, "Characterizing the effect of print orientation on interface integrity of multi-material jetting additive manufacturing," Additive Manufacturing, vol. 22, pp. 447-461, 2018/08/01/ 2018, DOI: [10] N. W. Bartlett et al., "A 3D-printed, functionally graded soft robot powered by combustion," (in English), Science, Article vol. 349, no. 6244, pp. 161-165, Jul 2015, DOI: 10.1126/science.aab0129. [11] B. Ezair and G. Elber, "Fabricating Functionally Graded Material Objects Using Trimmed Trivariate Volumetric Representations," Fabrication and Sculpting Event, Conference Proceedings 2017. [12] Z. Sudbury, C. Duty, and K. Vlastimil, "Expanding Material Property Space Maps with Functionally Graded Materials for Large Scale Additive Manufacturing," Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, pp. 459-484, 2017. [13] M. F. Ashby *, "Hybrids to fill holes in material property space," Philosophical Magazine, vol. 85, no. 26-27, pp. 3235-3257, 2005/09/11 2005, DOI: 10.1080/14786430500079892. [14] Z. Sudbury, C. Duty, V. Kunc, V. Kishore, C. Ajinjeru, J. Failla, and J. Lindahl, “Characterizing Material Transition for Functionally Graded Material Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, pp. 738-747, 2016. [15] Z. Sudbury, C. Ajinjeru, V. Kishore, C. Duty, P. Liu, and V. Kunc, "Blending of Fiber Reinforced Materials Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing," in Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering 2017, Seattle, WA, May 22-25 2017, 2017. [16] J. Brackett, Y. Yan, D. Cauthen, V. Kishore, J. Lindahl, T. Smith, H. Ning, V. Kunc, and C. Duty, “Development of Functionally Graded Material Capabilities in Large-scale Extrusion Deposition Additive Manufacturing,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium Proceedings, pp. 1793-1803, 2019. [17] ASTM D3171-15 “Standard Test Methods for Constiuent Content of Composite Materials," ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015, DOI: 10.1520/D3171-15, [18] Q. Wang, H. Ning, U. Vaidya, S. Pillay, and L.-A. Nolen, “Fiber Content Measuremnt for Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites Using Carbonization-In-Nitrogen Method,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 79-90, 2018, doi: 10.1177/0892705716679481.

Conference: SAMPE 2020 | Virtual Series

Publication Date: 2020/06/01

SKU: TP20-0000000249

Pages: 15

Price: FREE

Get This Paper