Title: A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage Pressure Vessels – Part II: Constitutive Modeling and Finite Element Analysis
Authors: Ba Nghiep Nguyen, Hee Seok Roh, Daniel R. Merkel, Kenneth I. Johnson, Kevin L. Simmons
Abstract: Subjected to thermomechanical cycling, composite cryogenic hydrogen (H2) storage pressure vessels experience high stresses in the carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy overwrap which can lead to vessel failure due to a combination of degradation mechanisms such as matrix cracking, fiber/matrix debonding, delamination, and fiber rupture. The present paper is the second of two articles that addresses the analysis and design of these pressure vessels. Predictive finite element (FE) modeling capabilities have been used to support a material acceptance process for evaluating specialty resins, vessel liner options, and CF composites through thermomechanical testing. We have applied a multiscale modeling approach recently developed (B.N. Nguyen et al., International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.09.200) to perform three-dimensional (3D) FE analysis and design of a cryo-compressed H2 storage pressure vessel for its operation in a large temperature range from room to cryogenic temperatures. The developed approach termed the micro-meso-macro approach determines the laminar stresses in different layers of the vessel in addition to constituent (i.e., fiber and matrix) stresses that are important to the design of the composite overwrap for its layup and material combination to reduce the risk of vessel failure.
References:  US DOE Vehicle Technology Office, Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap, 2017, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/08/f36/hstt_roadmap_July2017.pdf.  R.K. Ahluwalia, T.Q. Hua, J.-K. Peng, S. Lasher, K. McKenney, J. Sinha, and M. Gardiner, Technical Assessment of Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage Tank Systems for Automotive Applications. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2010; 35:4171–4184.  D.J. Durbin and C. Malardier-Jugroot, Review of Hydrogen Storage Techniques for on Board Vehicle Applications. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2013; 38:14595–14617.  R.K. Ahluwalia, J.K. Peng, H.S. Roh, T.Q. Hua, C. Houchins, and B.D. James, Supercritical Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage for Fuel Cell Electric Buses. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2018; 43:10215–10231.  J. Moreno-Blanco, G. Petitpas, F. Espinosa-Loza, F. Elizalde-Blancas, J. Martinez-Frias, and S.M. Aceves, The Storage Performance of Automotive Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vessels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019; 44:16841–16851.  B.N. Nguyen, D.R. Merkel, K.I. Johnson, D.W. Gotthold, K.L. Simmons, and H.S. Roh, Modeling the Effects of Loading Scenario and Thermal Expansion Coefficient on Potential Failure of Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vessels. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.09.200.  B.N. Nguyen and K.L. Simmons, A Multiscale Modeling Approach to Analyze Filament-Wound Composite Pressure Vessels. Journal of Composite Materials, 2012; 47(17): 2113–2123.  J.D. Eshelby, The Determination of The Elastic Field of an Ellipsoidal Inclusion and Related Problems. Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Series A, 1957; 241: 376–396.  T. Mori and K. Tanaka, Average Stress in Matrix and Average Elastic Energy of Materials with Misfitting Inclusions. Acta Metallurgica, 1973; 21: 571–574.  Y Benveniste. A New Approach to the Application of Mori-Tanaka's Theory in Composite Materials. Mechanics of Materials, 1987; 6:147–157.  B.N. Nguyen, S.K. Bapanapalli, V. Kunc, et al., Prediction of the Elastic-Plastic Stress/Strain Response for Injection Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics. Journal of Composites Materials, 2009; 43: 217–246.  W. Ramberg and W.R. Osgood, Description of Stress–Strain Curves by Three Parameters. Technical Note No. 902, 1943, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington DC.  Y. Takao and M. Taya, Thermal Expansion Coefficients and Thermal Stresses in an Aligned Short Fiber Composite with Application to a Short Carbon Fiber/Aluminum. Journal of Applied Mechanics, 1985; 52:806–810.  F.W.J. Van Hattum and C.A. Bernardo, A Model to Predict the Strength of Short Fiber Composites. Polymer Composites, 1999; 20(4):524–533.  C. Zheng and W. Yu, Effect of Low-Temperature on Mechanical Behavior for an AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel. Materials Science & Engineering A; 2018, 710:359-365.  U Escher, Thermal Expansion of Epoxy Resins with Different Cross-Link Densities at Low Temperatures. Cryogenics, 1995; 35:775–778.  M.G. Huson, High-Performance Pitch-based Carbon Fibers. Structure and Properties of High-Performance Fibers; Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles, 2017, Pages 31–78
Conference: SAMPE NEXUS 2021
Publication Date: 2021/06/29
Price: FREEGet This Paper