Get This Paper

In-Process Ultrasonic Cure Monitoring System for Defect Detection and Localization in Composites


Title: In-Process Ultrasonic Cure Monitoring System for Defect Detection and Localization in Composites

Authors: Tyler B. Hudson, Kenneth M. Serrano, Abiel Amador Jr., Trenton Bryce Abbott, Frank L. Palmieri

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.21.0599

Abstract: Composite materials are gaining increased use by aerospace manufacturers due to their superior strength-to-weight ratio. However, the composite manufacturing process can introduce defects such as voids and fiber waviness, which can decrease the strength and reliability of the structure. Previous technologies have been developed to non-destructively locate and quantify defects in composite parts after fabrication, but not during cure. The technology developed in this study is an ultrasonic system capable of performing non-destructive inspection of composite parts during cure in an industrial oven. An ultrasonic scanner was enclosed in a nitrogen-cooled insulating box that prevented thermal damage to the temperature-sensitive electronics. Inspection of the composite part was performed through the bottom of the enclosure, which served as the tool plate for the part. This paper will discuss the results obtained throughout the cure cycle from amplitude C-scans and B-scans of a composite panel with intentionally embedded defects. Hollow glass microspheres of various amounts were embedded between plies of a carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate to simulate porosity. The simulated porosity in the composite laminate was detected and localized throughout the cure cycle. This initial testing will aid in the transition of this system from an industrial oven to an autoclave, which is the primary method of curing aerospace-grade thermoset composites.

References: [1] Bedayat, H., Forghani, A., Hickmott, C., et al. "An efficient modelling approach for prediction of porosity severity in composite structures." Proceedings SAMPE Technical Conference. Seattle, WA, May 22-25, 2017. [2] Bedayat, H., Roy, M., Forghani, A., et al. "Simulation of gas and resin transport mechanisms in manufacturing process of composite structures and their effect on porosity." Proceedings of the American Society for Composites—Thirty-Second Technical Conference. West Lafayette, IN, October 22-25, 2017. [3] Hickmott, C., Forghani, A., Hutten, V., et al. "A numerical and experimental approach for modeling porosity due to entrapped air and volatiles off-gassing during manufacturing of composite structures." Proceedings of SAMPE Technical Conference. Charlotte, NC, May 20-23, 2019. [4] Karami, G. & Garnich, M., "Effective moduli and failure considerations for composites with periodic fiber waviness." Composite Structures 67 (2005): 461-475. [5] Gholizadeh, S., "A review of non-destructive testing methods of composite materials." Procedia Structural Integrity 1 (2016): 50-57. [6] Cadenato, A., Salla, J., Ramis, X., Morancho, J., Marroyo, L. & Martin, J., "Determination of gel and vitrification times of thermoset curing process by means of TMA, DMTA and DSC techniques." Journal of Thermal Analysis 49 (1997): 269-279. [7] Stamopoulos, A., Tserpes, K., Prucha, P. & Vavrik, D., "Evaluation of porosity effects on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic unidirectional laminates by X- ray computed tomography and mechanical testing." Journal of Composite Materials 50 (2016): 2087-2098. [8] Wróbel, G. & Pawlak, S., "A comparison study of the pulse-echo and through-transmission ultrasonics in glass/epoxy composites." Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering 22 (2007): 51-54. [9] Shepard, D. D. & Smith, K. R., "Ultrasonic cure monitoring of advanced composites." Sensor Review 19 (1999): 187-194. [10] Lionetto, F. & Maffezzoli, A., "Monitoring the cure state of thermosetting resins by ultrasound." Materials 6 (2013): 3783-3804. [11] Hudson, T. B. & Yuan, F. G., "Automated in-process cure monitoring of composite laminates using a guided wave-based system with high temperature piezoelectric transducers." Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Diagnostics and Prognostics of Engineering Systems 1 (2018): 021008. [12] Hudson, T. B., Auwaijan, N. & Yuan, F. G., "Guided wave-based system for real-time cure monitoring of composites using piezoelectric discs and fiber Bragg gratings/phase-shifted fiber Bragg gratings." Journal of Composite Materials 53 (2019): 969–979. [13] Mizukami, K., Yoshimoto, S. & Ogi, K., "In-process acquisition of cure-dependent viscoelastic properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites using micromechanics-based guided wave analysis." Polymer Testing 65 (2018): 459-467. [14] Hudson, T. B., Palmieri, F. L., Abbot, T. B., Seebo, J. P. & Burke, E. R. "Design of an automated ultrasonic scanning system for in-situ composite cure monitoring and defect detection." Proceedings SAMPE Technical Conference. Charlotte, NC, May 20-23, 2019. [15] Sloan, J. "Out of autoclave processing:< 1% void content." (2015) Retrieved from

Conference: SAMPE NEXUS 2021

Publication Date: 2021/06/29

SKU: TP21-0000000599

Pages: 12

Price: FREE

Get This Paper