Get This Paper

Additive Manufacturing with Carbon Fiber Reinforced LM-PAEK


Title: Additive Manufacturing with Carbon Fiber Reinforced LM-PAEK

Authors: Nathaniel Heathman and Mehran Tehrani

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.22.0859

Abstract: This paper presents a preliminary understanding of the void formation, microstructure, crystallization kinetics, and bond formation in additively manufactured (AM) carbon fiber reinforced low-melt polyaryletherketone (LM-PAEK) composites. Coupons for this study are made from both tapes (volume fraction or Vf=55%), using laser-assisted automated fiber placement (AFP), and filaments (Vf=37%), using fused filament fabrication (FFF). The pros and cons of different feedstock materials and their corresponding AM techniques are discussed and validated through microscopy, and thermal and mechanical analysis. Testing shows that LM-PAEK manufactured via FFF and AFP have a low void content (less than 3%), high crystallinity (over 20%), and a relatively high short beam shear strength (~60 MPa). Compared with other thermoplastics, LM-PAEK composites achieve relatively high qualities for both AFP and FFF owing to LM-PAEKs relatively lower processing temperature, viscosity, and crystallinity.

References: [1] H. Pérez-Martín, P. Mackenzie, A. Baidak, C. M. Ó Brádaigh, and D. Ray, “Crystallinity studies of PEKK and carbon fibre/PEKK composites: A review,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 223, p. 109127, Oct. 2021, doi: 10/gnxv6p. [2] B. Zheng et al., “Formability and Failure Mechanisms of Woven CF/PEEK Composite Sheet in Solid-State Thermoforming,” Polymers, vol. 11, no. 6, p. 966, Jun. 2019, doi: 10/gnxv68. [3] T. J. Hoskins, K. D. Dearn, and S. N. Kukureka, “Mechanical performance of PEEK produced by additive manufacturing,” Polym. Test., vol. 70, pp. 511–519, Sep. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2018.08.008. [4] M. Rinaldi, T. Ghidini, F. Cecchini, A. Brandao, and F. Nanni, “Additive layer manufacturing of poly (ether ether ketone) via FDM,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 145, pp. 162–172, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.03.029. [5] M. Garcia‐Leiner, B. Streifel, C. Başgül, D. W. MacDonald, and S. M. Kurtz, “Characterization of polyaryletherketone (PAEK) filaments and printed parts produced by extrusion‐based additive manufacturing,” Polym. Int., vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 1128–1136, Aug. 2021, doi: 10/gnxv7b. [6] N. van de Werken, J. Hurley, P. Khanbolouki, A. N. Sarvestani, A. Y. Tamijani, and M. Tehrani, “Design considerations and modeling of fiber reinforced 3D printed parts,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 160, pp. 684–692, Mar. 2019, doi: 10/gfv375. [7] N. van de Werken, H. Tekinalp, P. Khanbolouki, S. Ozcan, A. Williams, and M. Tehrani, “Additively manufactured carbon fiber-reinforced composites: State of the art and perspective,” Addit. Manuf., vol. 31, p. 100962, Jan. 2020, doi: 10/ghgkm8. [8] K. Yassin and M. Hojjati, “Processing of thermoplastic matrix composites through automated fiber placement and tape laying methods: A review,” J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1676–1725, Dec. 2018, doi: 10/gfsffz. [9] M. Assadi, “High Speed AFP Processing of Thermoplastics,” SAE AeroTech Digit. Summit, p. 8, Mar. 2021. [10] N. Heathman, T. Yap, and Mehran Tehrani, “Hot Isostatic Pressing to Enhance Inter-Laminar Tensile Strength of Additively Manufactured Carbon Fiber-PEKK Parts,” Proc. 35th Annu. Am. Soc. Compos. Tech. Conf. 2020. [11] C. Pandelidi, S. Bateman, S. Piegert, R. Hoehner, I. Kelbassa, and M. Brandt, “The technology of continuous fibre-reinforced polymers: a review on extrusion additive manufacturing methods,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 113, no. 11–12, pp. 3057–3077, Apr. 2021, doi: 10/gnxv7p. [12] O. Çelik, D. Peeters, C. Dransfeld, and J. Teuwen, “Intimate contact development during laser assisted fiber placement: Microstructure and effect of process parameters,” Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf., vol. 134, p. 105888, Jul. 2020, doi: 10/gjmpxz. [13] Toray Advanced Composites, “Toray Cetex TC1225 Data Sheet.” [Online]. Available: [14] N. van de Werken, P. Koirala, D. Doyle, J. Ghorbani, and M. Tehrani, “Investigating the Hot Isostatic Pressing of an Additively Manufactured Continuous Carbon Fiber Reinforced PEEK Composite”, Addit. Manuf., 37, 101634 (2021).

Conference: SAMPE 2022

Publication Date: 2022/05/23

SKU: TP22-0000000859

Pages: 12

Price: $24.00

Get This Paper