Get This Paper




Authors: Claire E. Drury, Michael E. Lusk, Sean T. Ryan, John M. Misasi

DOI: 10.33599/nasampe/s.23.0196

Abstract: With the use of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) poised to significantly increase in the automotive, aerospace, and sporting goods industries, there is an urgent need to develop recycling pathways for composite scrap and end-of-life parts. This work was performed to compare two different pathways of recycling CFRP waste: mechanical versus chemical recycling. Cured epoxy-matrix CFRP was mechanically recycled via pulverization, and then this pulverized CFRP was used in a chemical recycling process to liberate fibers. These two feedstocks were compounded with Nylon 6,6 into two different thermoplastic short fiber composites to study their impacts as a filler/reinforcement. Each material was injection molded into test specimens for analysis of their thermal (melt and crystallization), physical (density), and mechanical properties (tensile). Values obtained from the recycled molding compounds are compared to literature values of commercially available virgin materials.

References: [1] A. B. Strong, Fundamentals of Composites Manufacturing, Second Edition: Materials, Methods and Applications. Society of Manufacturing Engineers, 2008. [2] A. K. Bledzki, H. Seidlitz, K. Goracy, M. Urbaniak, and J. J. Rösch, “Recycling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Polymers—Review—Part 1: Volume of Production, Recycling Technologies, Legislative Aspects,” Polymers, vol. 13, no. 2, Art. no. 2, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.3390/polym13020300. [3] D. R. Vieira, R. K. Vieira, and M. Chang Chain, “Strategy and management for the recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) in the aircraft industry: a critical review,” Int. J. Sustain. Dev. World Ecol., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 214–223, May 2017, doi: 10.1080/13504509.2016.1204371. [4] A. Yazdanbakhsh and L. C. Bank, “A critical review of research on reuse of mechanically recycled FRP production and end-of-life waste for construction,” Polymers, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1810–1826, 2014. [5] R. Abdallah et al., “A critical review on recycling composite waste using pyrolysis for sustainable development,” Energies, vol. 14, no. 18, p. 5748, 2021. [6] J. A. Butenegro, M. Bahrami, J. Abenojar, and M. Á. Martínez, “Recent Progress in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Recycling: A Review of Recycling Methods and Reuse of Carbon Fibers,” Materials, vol. 14, no. 21, Art. no. 21, Jan. 2021, doi: 10.3390/ma14216401. [7] T. Liu, L. Shao, B. Zhao, Y.-C. Chang, and J. Zhang, “Progress in Chemical Recycling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” Macromol. Rapid Commun., vol. 43, no. 23, p. 2200538, 2022, doi: 10.1002/marc.202200538. [8] Toray, “2510 Prepreg System.” [Online]. Available: [9] Y. Ma, D. Kim, and S. R. Nutt, “Chemical treatment for dissolution of amine-cured epoxies at atmospheric pressure,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 146, pp. 240–249, Dec. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2017.10.014. [10] JCATI-Toray Research Team 2022, (Apr. 14, 2022). Accessed: Jan. 08, 2023. [Online Video]. Available: [11] M. Jackson, M. Kaushik, S. Nazarenko, S. Ward, R. Maskell, and J. Wiggins, “Effect of free volume hole-size on fluid ingress of glassy epoxy networks,” Polymer, vol. 52, no. 20, pp. 4528–4535, Sep. 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2011.07.042. [12] K. Frank et al., “Fluid uptake behavior of multifunctional epoxy blends,” Polymer, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 403–410, Jan. 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.polymer.2012.11.065. [13] M. B. Smith and J. W. & Sons, March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry: Reactions, Mechanisms, and Structure. Wiley, 2013. [Online]. Available: [14] T. Liu et al., “Mild chemical recycling of aerospace fiber/epoxy composite wastes and utilization of the decomposed resin,” Polym. Degrad. Stab., vol. 139, pp. 20–27, May 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2017.03.017. [15] W. Lyu, X. Chen, Y. Li, S. Cao, and Y. Han, “Thermal stability and heat release effect of flame retarded PA66 prepared by end-pieces capping technology,” Compos. Part B Eng., vol. 167, pp. 34–43, Jun. 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.12.016. [16] “Determination of Carbon Black Pigment in Nylon 66 by TGA.” Accessed: Jan. 07, 2023. [Online]. Available: [17] P. N. Thanki and R. P. Singh, “Progress in the Area of Degradation and Stabilization of Nylon 66,” J. Macromol. Sci. Part C Polym. Rev., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 595–614, Jan. 1998, doi: 10.1080/15583729808546033. [18] T. N. Prabhu, T. Demappa, V. Harish, and K. Prashantha, “Mechanical, thermal and flame-retardant properties of epoxy–nylon fabric–clay hybrid laminates,” High Perform. Polym., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 559–565, Aug. 2013, doi: 10.1177/0954008313475830. [19] P. Jain, V. Choudhary, and I. K. Varma, “Effect of structure on thermal behaviour of epoxy resins,” Eur. Polym. J., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 181–187, Jan. 2003, doi: 10.1016/S0014-3057(02)00191-X. [20] “AmilanTM CM3001-N Technical Datasheet.” Accessed: Jan. 06, 2023. [Online]. Available: [21] “Starflam® 377H NT0801 Technical Datasheet.” Accessed: Jan. 06, 2023. [Online]. Available: [22] “ToraycaTM 3101T-20V Technical Datasheet.” Accessed: Jan. 06, 2023. [Online]. Available: [23] “Vydyne® STAT A 20 FC BK Technical Datasheet.” 2023. [24] N. Klein, D. Selivansky, and G. Marom, “The effects of a nucleating agent and of fibers on the crystallization of nylon 66 matrices,” Polym. Compos., vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 189–197, 1995, doi: 10.1002/pc.750160302. [25] J. Yan et al., “Axial Crystal Growth Evolution and Crystallization Characteristics of Bi-Continuous Polyamide 66 Membranes Prepared via the Cold Non-Solvent-Induced Phase Separation Technique,” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 9, Art. no. 9, Jan. 2022, doi: 10.3390/polym14091706. [26] J. W. Cho, G. W. Lee, and B. C. Chun, “Mechanical properties of nylon 6 fibers gel-spun from benzyl alcohol solution,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci., vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 771–778, 1996, doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19961031)62:5>771::AID-APP8<3.0.CO;2-T. [27] “Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 10th Edition | Wiley,” (accessed Jan. 09, 2023). [28] R. L. Clark, R. G. Kander, and B. B. Sauer, “Nylon 66/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) reinforced composites:: 1. Interphase microstructure and evaluation of fiber–matrix adhesion,” Compos. Part Appl. Sci. Manuf., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 27–36, Jan. 1999, doi: 10.1016/S1359-835X(98)00082-7.

Conference: SAMPE 2023

Publication Date: 2023/04/17

SKU: TP23-0000000196

Pages: 15

Price: $30.00

Get This Paper